People

Rambod has extensive experience as a trade litigator advising on and arguing NAFTA and WTO cases. He served on diplomatic postings to the WTO and the European Commission in Geneva and Brussels. As General Counsel, General Legal Services, Finance Canada, he advised on regulatory responses to the 2008 financial crisis, financial services trade negotiations, money laundering, and trade issues. He was Counsellor at the Rules Division of the WTO before joining K&S.

Rambod obtained his law degrees at the University of Toronto and articled in Toronto, where he worked on cases before the CITT, the Federal Court of Appeal and FTA panels. Called to the Bar of Ontario in 1994, he joined Canada's diplomatic service as a trade lawyer, working on and arguing NAFTA and WTO cases, participating in multilateral environmental negotiations, and advising on issues including agricultural trade, subsidies and antidumping, export controls, and technical barriers to trade. Following two diplomatic postings, he served as Counsel in the Privy Council Office and joined Canada's Finance Ministry as General Counsel, General Legal Services after the 2008 financial crisis.

As General Counsel, he was responsible for the provision of strategic and legal advice in respect of Finance Canada's non-tax business lines: banking, including consumer protection, prudential oversight, and financial services trade; money laundering; customs and trade rules; the National Debt and related financial instruments and transactions; international financial institutions; and the National Budget.

As the Competition Bureau's first Deputy Commissioner – Competition Promotion, Rambod was responsible for economic advocacy, international negotiations, strategic planning and communications. He established the Bureau's first compliance program. In 2016, he joined the WTO as Counsellor in the Rules Division. He is the author of a book on international trade law and numerous articles and presentations on international law and international economic regulation, and has taught international economic and trade law in various universities in Canada and Europe.

He is an avid skier, photographer and travel-blogger, and speaks French and Farsi fluently.

Full Bio

Credentials

Master of Laws, University of Toronto

J.D., University of Toronto

B.A., Trinity College, high distinction

Court of Appeal for Ontario

Supreme Court of Ontario

Law Society of Upper Canada (1994)

English

Farsi

French

German

APEX Award (for CETA team effort)


Association of Public Service Executives, 2014

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2013

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2012

Minister’s Award for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2012

“The Head of the Public Service” Award


Canadian Public Service head, 2000

Minister’s Citation for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2000

Award of Excellence


Treasury Board of Canada, 1999

Award of Merit


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1998

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Recognition

APEX Award (for CETA team effort)


Association of Public Service Executives, 2014

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2013

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2012

Minister’s Award for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2012

“The Head of the Public Service” Award


Canadian Public Service head, 2000

Minister’s Citation for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2000

Award of Excellence


Treasury Board of Canada, 1999

Award of Merit


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1998

Matters

Litigator (WTO panel and Appellate Body, acting for the Government of Canada)

European Union – Hormones Retaliation:   First publicly broadcast dispute under the WTO; first to address "post-retaliation" issues arising out of failure to comply with WTO rulings.

Canada – Wheat Board:   First dispute on the scope of state-trading enterprise obligations of the WTO Agreement; clarified Article XVII of GATT.  

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Matters

Litigator (WTO panel and Appellate Body, acting for the Government of Canada)

European Union – Hormones Retaliation:   First publicly broadcast dispute under the WTO; first to address "post-retaliation" issues arising out of failure to comply with WTO rulings.

Canada – Wheat Board:   First dispute on the scope of state-trading enterprise obligations of the WTO Agreement; clarified Article XVII of GATT.  

US – Final Determination of countervailing measures on softwood:  First ever dispute before the Appellate Body of the WTO on the scope of "in-country" benchmarks for subsidies cases and the definition of "goods" in the SCM Agreement.

US – Byrd Amendment: Case involving eleven complainants – clarification of what constitutes "specific action against a subsidy" with important and far-reaching consequences for subsidy disciplines.

US – Preliminary Determination of CVD on Softwood (panel only):  First ever dispute in the WTO on the scope of "in-country" benchmarks for subsidies cases, and the scope of "goods" in the definition of a subsidy under the WTO.

Canada – Measures Affecting Export of Civilian Aircraft (21.5):  Systemically important case clarifying the scope of obligation of a state in implementing panel reports, and a 21.5 panel's scope of review of a Member's implementation measures.

Brazil – Export Financing Programme for Regional Aircraft (21.5):  First case on the legal test for meeting the requirements of key exception to the prohibition on export subsidies in the SCM Agreement.

Canada – Measures Affecting Export of Civilian Aircraft:  First case on the scope of de facto export subsidy disciplines of the SCM Agreement as well as on evidentiary obligations of Members in the dispute settlement proceedings of the WTO.

Brazil – Export Financing Programme for Regional Aircraft:  First case on the scope of a developing country's obligations under the SCM Agreement, as well as key systemic findings on procedural questions.

Counsel/advisor

Canada – Tariffs on Supply Managed Products:  (NAFTA Chapter 20) First and only NAFTA Chapter 20 case between Canada and the United States affecting sensitive sectors in Canada. Key findings on treaty interpretation and the complex legal relationship between Canada-US FTA, the GATT, the NAFTA and the WTO Agreement.

Solicitor and litigation manager (As General Counsel for Department of Finance Canada)

Reference re Securities Act, [2011] 3 SCR 837:  Series of constitutional references dealing with Parliament's jurisdiction to regulate securities to ensure national financial stability.

Canada (Attorney General) v. Federation of Law Societies of Canada, [2015] 1 SCR 401:  Long-running case involving the interaction between Canada's money laundering regime, internationally-agreed financial monitoring and reporting requirements, and constitutionally protected rights related to solicitor-client privilege.

Bank of Montreal, et al. v. Réal Marcotte, et al., 2013 CanLII 18832 (SCC):  Canada participated as intervenor at various levels leading to the Supreme Court to safeguard Parliament's authority over consumer protection in respect of banking.

Trade law advisor and negotiator

Agreement on Humane Trapping Standards Trilateral treaty:  First of its kind – setting out standards for humane trapping of thirteen North American and European fur-bearing species.

Cartagena Protocol:  Multilateral environmental agreement for safe handling, transport and use of living modified organism resulting from modern biotechnology.

Rotterdam Convention:  Multilateral environmental agreement to promote shared responsibility in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.

Stockholm Convention:  Multilateral environmental agreement on eliminating or restricting the production and use of persistent organic pollutants.

Canada-EFTA Mutual Recognition Agreement:  This agreement on conformity assessment constitutes a significant trade policy instrument to overcome technical obstacles to trade in regulated sectors.

Matters

Litigator (WTO panel and Appellate Body, acting for the Government of Canada)

European Union – Hormones Retaliation:   First publicly broadcast dispute under the WTO; first to address "post-retaliation" issues arising out of failure to comply with WTO rulings.

Canada – Wheat Board:   First dispute on the scope of state-trading enterprise obligations of the WTO Agreement; clarified Article XVII of GATT.  

See more
Icon close

Close

Matters

Litigator (WTO panel and Appellate Body, acting for the Government of Canada)

European Union – Hormones Retaliation:   First publicly broadcast dispute under the WTO; first to address "post-retaliation" issues arising out of failure to comply with WTO rulings.

Canada – Wheat Board:   First dispute on the scope of state-trading enterprise obligations of the WTO Agreement; clarified Article XVII of GATT.  

US – Final Determination of countervailing measures on softwood:  First ever dispute before the Appellate Body of the WTO on the scope of "in-country" benchmarks for subsidies cases and the definition of "goods" in the SCM Agreement.

US – Byrd Amendment: Case involving eleven complainants – clarification of what constitutes "specific action against a subsidy" with important and far-reaching consequences for subsidy disciplines.

US – Preliminary Determination of CVD on Softwood (panel only):  First ever dispute in the WTO on the scope of "in-country" benchmarks for subsidies cases, and the scope of "goods" in the definition of a subsidy under the WTO.

Canada – Measures Affecting Export of Civilian Aircraft (21.5):  Systemically important case clarifying the scope of obligation of a state in implementing panel reports, and a 21.5 panel's scope of review of a Member's implementation measures.

Brazil – Export Financing Programme for Regional Aircraft (21.5):  First case on the legal test for meeting the requirements of key exception to the prohibition on export subsidies in the SCM Agreement.

Canada – Measures Affecting Export of Civilian Aircraft:  First case on the scope of de facto export subsidy disciplines of the SCM Agreement as well as on evidentiary obligations of Members in the dispute settlement proceedings of the WTO.

Brazil – Export Financing Programme for Regional Aircraft:  First case on the scope of a developing country's obligations under the SCM Agreement, as well as key systemic findings on procedural questions.

Counsel/advisor

Canada – Tariffs on Supply Managed Products:  (NAFTA Chapter 20) First and only NAFTA Chapter 20 case between Canada and the United States affecting sensitive sectors in Canada. Key findings on treaty interpretation and the complex legal relationship between Canada-US FTA, the GATT, the NAFTA and the WTO Agreement.

Solicitor and litigation manager (As General Counsel for Department of Finance Canada)

Reference re Securities Act, [2011] 3 SCR 837:  Series of constitutional references dealing with Parliament's jurisdiction to regulate securities to ensure national financial stability.

Canada (Attorney General) v. Federation of Law Societies of Canada, [2015] 1 SCR 401:  Long-running case involving the interaction between Canada's money laundering regime, internationally-agreed financial monitoring and reporting requirements, and constitutionally protected rights related to solicitor-client privilege.

Bank of Montreal, et al. v. Réal Marcotte, et al., 2013 CanLII 18832 (SCC):  Canada participated as intervenor at various levels leading to the Supreme Court to safeguard Parliament's authority over consumer protection in respect of banking.

Trade law advisor and negotiator

Agreement on Humane Trapping Standards Trilateral treaty:  First of its kind – setting out standards for humane trapping of thirteen North American and European fur-bearing species.

Cartagena Protocol:  Multilateral environmental agreement for safe handling, transport and use of living modified organism resulting from modern biotechnology.

Rotterdam Convention:  Multilateral environmental agreement to promote shared responsibility in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.

Stockholm Convention:  Multilateral environmental agreement on eliminating or restricting the production and use of persistent organic pollutants.

Canada-EFTA Mutual Recognition Agreement:  This agreement on conformity assessment constitutes a significant trade policy instrument to overcome technical obstacles to trade in regulated sectors.

Credentials

Master of Laws, University of Toronto

J.D., University of Toronto

B.A., Trinity College, high distinction

Court of Appeal for Ontario

Supreme Court of Ontario

Law Society of Upper Canada (1994)

English

Farsi

French

German

APEX Award (for CETA team effort)


Association of Public Service Executives, 2014

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2013

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2012

Minister’s Award for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2012

“The Head of the Public Service” Award


Canadian Public Service head, 2000

Minister’s Citation for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2000

Award of Excellence


Treasury Board of Canada, 1999

Award of Merit


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1998

Icon close

Close

Recognition

APEX Award (for CETA team effort)


Association of Public Service Executives, 2014

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2013

Portfolio Excellence Award


Justice Canada, 2012

Minister’s Award for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2012

“The Head of the Public Service” Award


Canadian Public Service head, 2000

Minister’s Citation for Trade Service


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2000

Award of Excellence


Treasury Board of Canada, 1999

Award of Merit


Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1998